This is a mirror of official Google NDK documentation.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fixed a typo in GAbi++ implementaiton where result of dynamic_cast<D>(b)
of base class object 'b' to derived class D is adjusted wrong
(in the opposite direction from base class). See
- Fixed an issue in make-standalone-toolchain.sh which fails to copy
- Added support for the mips ABI.
This release of the Android NDK contains support for 'mips' ABI.
To generate machine runs on MIPS-based Android devices, please add 'mips' to
APP_ABI definition in your Application.mk, or 'all' to generate binaries for
all currently supported ABI. See docs/CPU-MIPS.html for details.
- You can build a standalone mips toolchain using the
--toolchain=mipsel-linux-android-4.4.3 option when calling
make-standalone-toolchain.sh. See docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html for more details.
OTHER BUG FIXE:
- Fixed ndk-build.cmd to ensure that ndk-build.cmd works correctly even if
the user has redefined the SHELL environment variable (which can happen under
the hood when installing a variety of development tools on Windows)
This release of the NDK includes an important fix for Tegra2-based devices,
and a few additional fixes and improvements:
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fixed GNU STL armeabi-v7a binaries to not crash on non-NEON devices.
The files provided with NDK r7b where not configured properly, resulting
in crashes on Tegra2-based devices and others when trying to use certain
floating-point functions (e.g., cosf, sinf, expf).
- Added support for custom output directories through the NDK_OUT
environment variable. When defined, this variable is used to store all
intermediate generated files, instead of $PROJECT_PATH/obj.
The variable is also recognized by ndk-gdb.
- Added support for building modules with hundreds or even thousand of source
files by defining LOCAL_SHORT_COMMANDS to true in your Android.mk.
This change forces the NDK build system to put most linker or archiver
options into list files, to work-around command-line length limitations
(particularly on Windows). See docs/ANDROID-MK.html for details.
OTHER BUG FIXES:
- Fixed android_getCpuCount() implementation in the cpufeatures helper
library. The previous implementation only listed the cores that were
active the first time the function was called. This behavior could
provide results that were too low on devices that disable and enable
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Updated <sys/atomics.h> to avoid correctness issues on some multi-core
ARM-based devices. Rebuild your unmodified sources with this version of the
NDK and this problem should completely be eliminated. For more details, read
- Reverted to binutils 2.19 to try to fix debugging issues that
appeared in NDK r7 (which switched to binutils 2.20.1).
- Fixed ndk-build on 32-bit Linux. A packaging error put a 64-bit version
of the 'awk' executable under prebuilt/linux-x86/bin in NDK r7.
- Fixed native Windows build (ndk-build.cmd). Other build modes were not
affected. The fixes include:
* Removed an infinite loop / stack overflow bug that happened when trying
to call ndk-build.cmd from a directory that was _not_ the top of your
project path (e.g. any sub-directory of it).
* Fixed a problem where the auto-generated dependency files were ignored.
This meant that updating a header didn't trigger recompilation of sources
that included it.
* Fixed a problem where special characters in files or paths, other than
spaces and quotes, were not correctly handled.
- Fixed the standalone toolchain to generate proper binaries when using
-lstdc++ (i.e. linking against the GNU libstdc++ C++ runtime). You should
use -lgnustl_shared if you want to link against the shared library
version or -lstdc++ for the static version.
See docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html for more details about this fix.
- Fixed gnustl_shared on Cygwin. The linker complained that it couldn't find
libsupc++.a while the file was at the right location.
- Fixed cygwin C++ link when not using any specific C++ runtime through
- When your application uses the GNU libstdc++ runtime, the compiler will
no longer forcibly enable exceptions and RTTI. This change results in smaller
code. If you need these features, you need to do either one of these:
1/ Enable exceptions and/or RTTI explicitely in your modules or
2/ Define APP_GNUSTL_FORCE_CPP_FEATURES to 'exceptions', 'rtti' or both
in your Application.mk. See docs/APPLICATION-MK.html for more details.
- ndk-gdb now works properly when your application has private services
running in independent processes. It debugs the main application process,
instead of the first process listed by 'ps', which is usually a service
- Fixed a rare bug where NDK r7 would fail to honor the LOCAL_ARM_MODE value
and always compile certain source files (but not all) to 32-bit instructions.
- stlport: Refresh the sources to match the Android platform version. This
update fixes a few minor bugs:
- Fixed instantiation of an incomplete type.
- Fixed minor == versus = typo
- Use memmove instead of memcpy in string::assign
- Added better handling of IsNANorINF, IsINF, IsNegNAN, etc..
For complete details, see the commit log.
- stlport: Removed 5 un-necessary static initializers from the library.
- The GNU libstdc++ libraries for armeabi-v7a were mistakenly compiled for
armeabi instead. This had no impact on correctness, but using the right
ABI should provide for slightly better performance.
- the 'cpu-features' helper library was updated to report three optional
x86 CPU features (SSSE3, MOVBE and POPCNT). See docs/CPU-FEATURES.html
for more details.
- docs/NDK-BUILD.html was updated to mention NDK_APPLICATION_MK instead
of NDK_APP_APPLICATION_MK to select a custom Application.mk file.
- cygwin: ndk-build no longer creates an empty "NUL" file in the current
directory when invoked.
- cygwin: better automatic dependency detection. It previously didn't work
properly in the following case:
- When the cygwin drive prefix was not /cygdrive
- When using drive-less mounts, e.g. when Cygwin would translate /home
to \\server\subdir instead of C:\Some\Dir.
- cygwin: ndk-build does not try to use the native Windows tools under
$NDK/prebuilt/windows/bin with certain versions of Cygwin and/or
- New official NDK APIs for Android 4.0 (a.k.a. API level 14),
which adds the following native features to the platform:
- Native multimedia API based on the Khronos Group OpenMAX AL
1.0.1 Standard. New headers <OMXAL/OpenMAXAL.h> and
<OMXAL/OpenMAXAL_Android.h> are provided to allow
applications targeting this API level to perform multimedia output
directly from native code using a new Android-specific buffer
queue interface. For more details, see docs/openmaxal/index.html
- Updated the native audio API based on the Khronos Group OpenSL ES
1.0.1 Standard. API Level 14 can now decode compressed
audio (e.g. MP3, AAC, Vorbis) to PCM. For more details, see
docs/opensles/index.html and http://www.khronos.org/opensles/.
- CCache support. To speed up large rebuilds, simply define the NDK_CCACHE
environment variable to 'ccache' (or the path to your ccache binary), as in:
The NDK build system will automatically use it when compiling any source
file. For more information about CCache, see http://ccache.samba.org
- You can now set your APP_ABI to 'all' to indicate that you want to build
your NDK modules for all the ABIs supported by your given NDK release.
This means that either one of these two lines in your Application.mk are
equivalent with this release:
APP_ABI := all
APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a x86
This also works if you define APP_ABI on the command-line, as in:
Which is a quick way to check that your project builds for all supported
ABIs without changing its Application.mk file.
- Shorter paths to source and object files used in build commands.
When invoking $NDK/ndk-build from your project path, the paths to the
source, object and binary files passed to the build commands will be
significantly shorter now because they are now passed relative to the
This is useful when building projects with a lot of source files, to
avoid limits on the maximum command line length supported by your host
The behaviour is unchanged if you invoked ndk-build from a sub-directory
of your project tree, or if you define NDK_PROJECT_PATH to point to a
- New LOCAL_CPP_FEATURES variable in Android.mk, used to declare which C++
features (RTTI or Exceptions) your module uses. This is especially handy
if you have prebuilt modules that depend on them since this will ensure
the final link will work correctly.
See docs/ANDROID-MK.html and docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html for more details
- WARNING: VERY EXPERIMENTAL!!
You can now build your NDK sources on Windows *without* Cygwin.
Simply call the script 'ndk-build.cmd' from the Windows cmd.exe
command-line, when in your project path.
The script takes exactly the same arguments than the original
Note that the Windows NDK package comes with its own prebuilt
binaries for GNU Make, Awk and other tools required by the build,
i.e. you shouldn't need to install anything else to get a working
IMPORTANT: ndk-gdb doesn't work. You still need Cygwin to debug
at the moment!
This feature is still very experimental, but feel free to try it
and report issues on the public forum (firstname.lastname@example.org)
or the public bug databse (http://b.android.com).
Note that all samples and unit tests succesfully compile with it.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Imported shared libraries are now installed by default to the target
installation location (i.e. libs/%lt;abi%gt;) if APP_MODULES is not
defined in your Application.mk.
This means that if a top-level module "foo" imports a module "bar", then
both libfoo.so and libbar.so will be copied to the install location.
Previously, only libfoo.so was, unless you listed 'bar' in your APP_MODULES
If you define APP_MODULES explicitely, the behaviour is unchanged.
- Static library imports are now properly transitive. If top-level module
'foo' imports static library 'bar' which imports static library 'zoo',
the libfoo.so will now be linked against both libbar.a and libzoo.a.
- ndk-gdb now works correctly for activities with multiple categories
in their MAIN intent filters.
- docs/STABLE-APIS.html: Added missing documentation listing EGL
as a supported stable API, starting from API level 9.
- Add a new C++ support runtime named "gabi++". More details about it
are available in the updated docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html.
- The STLport C++ runtimes now support RTTI (no exceptions yet though).
- Add a new C++ support runtime named "gnustl_shared" corresponding to the
shared library version of GNU libstdc++ v3 (GPLv3 license). See more
info at docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html
- You can now list several file extensions in LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION. As in:
LOCAL_CPP_EXTENSION := .cpp .cxx
To compile both foo.cpp and bar.cxx as C++ sources.
- Refreshed the EGL and OpenGLES Khronos headers to support more extensions.
Note that this does *not* change the NDK ABIs for the corresponding
libraries, since each extension must be probed at runtime by the client
Which extensions are available depends on your actual device (and GPU
drivers), not the version of the platform it provides.
The header changes simply add new constants and types to make it easier
to use the extensions why they have been probed with eglGetProcAddress() or
glGetProcAddress(). Here is the list of newly supported extensions:
- docs/NATIVE-ACTIVITY.HTML: Fixed typo, the minimum API level
should be 9, not 8 for native activities.
- removed many unwanted exported symbols from the link-time shared
system libraries provided by the NDK. This ensures that code generated
with the standalone toolchain doesn't risk to accidentally depend
on a non-stable ABI symbol (e.g. any libgcc.a symbol that changes
each time the toolchain used to build the platform is changed).
- download-toolchain-sources.sh: Script was updated to download the toolchain
sources from android.googlesource.com, the new location for AOSP servers.
This is a bug-fix release for NDK r6, no new features are provided.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fixed the multi-architecture build, i.e. when using APP_ABI="armeabi x86"
- Fixed location of prebuilt STLport binaries in the NDK release package.
(A bug in the packaging script placed them in the wrong location).
- Fixed atexit() usage in shared libraries with the x86 standalone toolchain.
- Fixed make-standalone-toolchain.sh --arch=x86 (it failed to copy the
proper GNU libstdc++ binaries to the right location).
- Fixed standalone toolchain linker warnings about missing definition and
size for '__dso_handle' symbol (arm only).
- Fixed the inclusion order of $(SYSROOT)/usr/include for x86 builds,
- Fixed the definitions of ptrdiff_t and size_t in x86-specific system
when used with the x86 standalone toolchain.
- Official support for the x86 ABI.
This release of the Android NDK now provides support for the 'x86' ABI.
This allows you to generate machine code that runs on future x86-based
Note that by default, code is still generated for ARM-based devices.
You can however add 'x86' to your APP_PLATFORM definition in your
Application.mk. For example, the following line instructs ndk-build
to build your code for three distinct ABIs:
APP_ABI := armeabi armeabi-v7a x86
Unless you rely on ARM-based assembly sources, you shouldn't need to touch
your Android.mk files to build x86 machine code.
For all details regarding x86 support, please read the new documentation
file named docs/CPU-X86.html.
Don't hesitate to file NDK bugs related to x86 at http://b.android.com
- You can build a standalone x86 toolchain using the --toolchain=x86-4.4.3
option when calling make-standalone-toolchain.sh. See
docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html for more details.
- The new 'ndk-stack' tool can be used to translate stack traces
(as reported by adb logcat in case of crash in native code) into
something more readable, i.e. containing function / source file /
line number information corresponding to each stack frame.
For more information and usage example, see the new documentation
OTHER FIXES & CHANGES:
- The arm-eabi-4.4.0, which had been deprecated since NDK r5, has been
finally removed from the NDK distribution.
- Support a project.properties file in the application's directory
instead of default.properties. This is in preparation for future SDK Tools
This release fixes a few bugs in r5b. There are no new features.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fixed a typo that prevented LOCAL_WHOLE_STATIC_LIBRARIES to work correctly
with the new toolchain. Also properly document this variable in
- Fixed a bug where code linked against gnustl_static would crash when run
on Android platform releases older than 2.2.
- <android/input.h>: Two functions in this header file, introduced
by API level 9 (a.k.a. 2.3) were incorrect and have been fixed. While
this breaks the source API, the binary interface to the system is
The functions missing a third 'history_index' parameter. They correct
definition is now:
float AMotionEvent_getHistoricalRawX(const AInputEvent* motion_event,
float AMotionEvent_getHistoricalRawY(const AInputEvent* motion_event,
- Updated the android-9 C library arm binary to correctly expose at link time
new functions that were added to it in Gingerbread (e.g. pthread_rwlock_init).
- Fixed a bug that made gdbserver crash on misc. Honeycomb devices (e.g.
the Motorola Xoom).
OTHER FIXES & CHANGES:
- Object files are now always linked in the order they appear in
LOCAL_SRC_FILES. This was not the case previously because the files
were grouped by source extensions instead.
- download-toolchain-sources.sh: Fixed a silly bug that prevented the
--git-date option to work properly when downloading the master branch.
- Fix an issue where a module could import itself, resulting in an infinite
loop in GNU Make.
- When import-module fails, it now prints the list of directories
that were searched. This is useful to check that the NDK_MODULE_PATH
definition used by the build system is correct.
- When import-module succeeds, it now prints the directory where the module
was found to the log (visible with NDK_LOG=1).
- <pthread.h>: Fixed the definition of PTHREAD_RWLOCK_INITIALIZER for
android-9 API level and higher.
- Fixed a bug where LOCAL_ARM_NEON was defined to true would make the build
fail (typo in build/core/build-binary.mk)
- Fixed a bug that prevented the compilation of .s assembly files
(.S files were ok).
- Speed-up the build of debuggable applications when there is a very
large number of include directories in a project.
- ndk-gdb: Better detection of 'adb shell' failures (improves error messages).
- ndk-build: Fix a rare bug that appeared when trying to perform parallel
builds of debuggable projects.
This release fixes a few bugs in r5. There are no new features.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fix a compiler bug in the arm-linux-androideabi-4.4.3 toolchain.
The previous binary generated invalid thumb instruction sequences when
dealing with signed chars. This problem was first reported on the
android-ndk forum and fixed by the following change in the toolchain
- docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html: Add missing documentation for the
"gnustl_static" value for APP_STL, that allows you to link against
a static library version of GNU libstdc++.
- ndk-build: Fix a bug that created inconsistent dependency files when a
compilation error occured on Windows, preventing building properly after
the error was fixed in the source code.
- ndk-build: Fix a Cygwin-specific bug where using very short paths for
the Android NDK installation or the project path could lead to the
generation of invalid dependency files, making incremental builds
- Fix a typo that prevented the cpufeatures library to work correctly
with the new NDK toolchain.
- Linux toolchain binaries now run on Ubuntu 8.04 or higher.
More specifically, the r5 binaries did require GLibc 2.11 on the host
system, and refused to run with previous releases due to an ABI mismatch
in the GNU C Library. The r5b binaries are generated with a special
toolchain that instead targets GLibc 2.7 or higher.
- GNU libstdc++ will not crash anymore when printing floating-point values
through i/o streams.
OTHER FIXES & CHANGES:
- ndk-build: Speed-up the Cygwin build by avoiding calling "cygpath -m"
from GNU Make for each and every source or object file. This was a problem
for users with very large source trees.
In case this doesn't work properly, define NDK_USE_CYGPATH=1 in your
environment to use 'cygpath -m' as usual.
Also, if 'cygpath' is not in your path, completely ignore it
(seems to be enough to run the NDK under MSys).
- ndk-build: Handle installation paths containing spaces when checking
cygwin installation. Before that, the script complained that the user
was using an incorrect version of GNU Make (even if he had the right one).
- Fixed a typo that prevented several NDK_MODULE_PATH to work properly when
it contained multiple directories separated with ":"
- prebuilt-common.sh: Make the script check the compiler directly for 64-bit
generated machine code, instead of relying on the host tag. That should
allow the 32-bit toolchain to rebuild properly on Snow Leopard.
- prebuilt-common.sh: Fix the toolchain rebuild scripts to work when
using a 32-bit host toolchain.
- <netinet/in.h>: Add missing declaration for INET_ADDRSTRLEN
- <netinet/in6.h>: Add missing declaration for IN6_IS_ADDR_MC_NODELOCAL
- <asm/byteorder.>: Replaced 'asm' with '__asm__' to allow compilation
with -std=c99. See https://review.source.android.com/#change,20076
- standalone toolchain: The -fpic flag is now the default for the
arm-linux-androideabi toolchain, instead of -fPIC. This avoids a performance
degradation when compared to the old android-eabi configuration.
This only affects users of the standalone toolchain. The NDK build script
always enforced -fpic implicitely.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Allow dlclose() to properly call static C++ destructors when unloading
a shared library. This requires changes in both the C library and the
build system. IMPORTANT: This feature is only available for API level 9.
- Fix packaging error for system libraries of level 5 and 8. The libraries
bundled with the NDK and used at link time were not the correct version,
and this prevented linking against certain symbols appropriately.
- ndk-gdb: do not start activity unless --start or --launch is used.
(the documentation was correct, the implementation wrong)
- The system headers for all API levels have been cleaned up and will
not provide the declarations of functions that are not available in
the corresponding system libraries.
- Support for API level 9, (a.k.a. Android 2.3) which adds the following
native features to the platform:
- Native audio API based on the Khronos Group OpenSL ES 1.0.1 Standard.
New headers <SLES/OpenSLES.h> and <SLES/OpenSLES_Android.h>
are provided to allow applications targeting this API level to perform
audio input, output and processing directly from native code.
- Native activity support, i.e. the ability to build applications that
are coded entirely in C or C++. More precisely, such applications still
run inside a VM, and will have to access most of the platform's features
using JNI (i.e. native code calling VM methods). However, this also
comes with a series of headers and libraries to implement the following
directly from native code:
- activity lifecycle management.
- user input handling (touch, keyboard, trackball, ...).
- window management (including accessing the pixel buffer).
- sensor listeners (e.g. accelerometer, compass, ...).
- hardware configuration management.
- easily reading assets out of an APK from native code.
- access to the storage manager, a new feature of Android X.X
that allows one to provide Opaque Binary Objects containing
large amounts of data outside of the APK.
See the documentation in docs/STABLE-APIS.html for more details.
Note that most of these new features are targeted at game developers.
- Improved gdbserver binary to allow debugging _threaded_ programs properly
with ndk-gdb (the previous binary could only set breakpoints on the main
IMPORTANT: THIS ONLY WORKS IF YOU RUN ON ANDROID 2.3 OR HIGHER.
The root cause of the problem is a platform bug that was only fixed in
2.3. If you try to debug on a previous platform, the gdbserver binary
will only be able to set breakpoints on the main thread.
For more information, see the specific section in docs/NDK-GDB.html.
- Easier debuggable builds: just invoke ndk-build while defining the
NDK_DEBUG variable to 1, as in:
This will have the same result that setting the android:debuggable="true"
in the <application> element of your AndroidManifest.xml file. See the
file docs/NDK-BUILD.html for more details.
Note that you will need to use the SDKr8 build tools to use this feature
- Refresh of system C++ headers:
- Headers have been moved out of the platform directory hierarchy.
This is to prevent conflicts with other STLs like STLport or the
GNU libstdc++ which provide their own version of the headers, but
does not affect your builds.
- The list of headers has grown to include the following:
cassert, cctype, cerrno, cfloat, climits, cmath,
csetjmp, csignal, cstddef, cstdint, cstdio, cstdlib,
cstring, ctime, cwchar, new, typeinfo, utility
Note that they still correspond to our minimal C++ runtime, no new feature
was introduced here.
- Support for C++ exceptions and RTTI. See docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html for
all details (and limitations).
- STLport implementation: Add sources and prebuilt binaries for a port of
the STLport C++ Standard Library (www.stlport.org), and an easy way to use
it at build time by defining APP_STL in your Application.mk. See
docs/APPLICATION-MK.html and docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html for all details.
- GNU libstdc++ implementation: Available as a static library that you can
select for your application through APP_STL. See docs/CPLUSPLUS-SUPPORT.html
for all details.
- Add support for prebuilt libraries with the PREBUILT_SHARED_LIBRARY and
PREBUILT_STATIC_LIBRARIES build scripts. See the new documentation
file named docs/PREBUILTS.html for explanations and usage examples.
- Support for module exports: A module can now define a set of compiler or
linker flags that will be automatically 'imported' by any other module that
depends on it, through LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES or LOCAL_SHARED_LIBRARIES.
This is achieved with the help of new Android.mk variables named
LOCAL_EXPORT_CFLAGS, LOCAL_EXPORT_CPPFLAGS, LOCAL_EXPORT_C_INCLUDES and
LOCAL_EXPORT_LDLIBS. See docs/ANDROID-MK.html for mode documentation, and
a 'samples/module-exports' for a sample project that uses this.
- Add support to specify a different file name for generated files, through
the new LOCAL_MODULE_FILENAME variable. See docs/ANDROID-MK.html for an
- Add support for module imports, through the NDK_MODULE_PATH environment
variable and the new 'import-module' function. This allows you to avoid
hard-coding the path of third-party modules into your project files.
See docs/IMPORT-MODULE.html for details.
- Add the content of LOCAL_C_INCLUDES to gdb.setup to make native debugging
easier. Also fixes an issue that prevented clean parallel builds of
debuggable applications to work correctly. This fixes an error message that
/bin/sh: <project>/libs/armeabi/gdb.setup: No such file or directory
When doing a "ndk-build -j<number>", with <number> bigger than 1.
- Add support for assembly-level source filtering. See the description of
LOCAL_FILTER_ASM in docs/ANDROID-MK.html for more details. This can be useful
for certain kinds of obfuscation tasks.
- This NDK comes with a new toolchain (named arm-linux-androideabi-4.4.3)
which provides many benefits, including:
- Better code generation than the previous one (gcc-4.4.0)
- On Windows, the binaries do not depend on Cygwin anymore.
- The ability to use it as a stand-alone cross-compiler
(see docs/STANDALONE-TOOLCHAIN.html for all details).
The binaries for gcc-4.4.0 are still provided for backwards compatibility.
Use NDK_TOOLCHAIN=arm-eabi-4.4.0 in your environment to force its usage.
Note that it is now deprecated and will be removed in a future NDK release.
IMPORTANT: The old toolchain doesn't properly support exceptions, RTTI,
STLport and GNU libstdc++.
The binaries for the already-deprecated gcc-4.2.1 have been removed.
- The 'cpufeatures' library has been updated to provide better architecture
and features detection (including a work-around for buggy ARMv6 kernels
which report an architecture version of 7).
The library is now also available as an import module, to simplify its
usage in your build scripts. See the updated docs/CPU-FEATURES.html file
NOTE: Please update your Android.mk to use module imports as soon as
possible. The location $NDK/source/cpufeatures/ is deprecated
and will be removed in a future NDK release. Avoid referencing
it directly in your build scritps!
OTHER FIXES AND CHANGES:
- Reduced the size of generated binaries by using --strip-unneeded
instead of --strip-debug. This gets rid of mor symbol table entries
in release shared libraries and executables, without impacting
- Fix bad automatic dependency tracking when using multiple source
- The path to system headers is now included last in the compilation command
line. This prevents conflicts with source code that define their own headers
with similar names (e.g. a custom "err.h" was ignored, because the system
<err.h> was used instead).
- Update documentation for 'my-dir' function to explain that, due to the
way GNU Make works, it really returns the path of the last included
Makefile (instead of the current one). Also provide examples on how
to deal with it.
- make-release.sh: Now has an --out-dir=<path> option to specify the
output directory where the packages are going to be copied. Also
ensure that generated packages have go+r permissions.
- ndk-build will now properly escape arguments. This means that something
ndk-build MY_CFLAGS="-DFOO -DBAR"
will now work correctly.
- Add --git-http option to download-toolchain-sources.sh and
rebuild-all-prebuilt.sh in order to download sources from
android.git.kernel.org through HTTP.
- ndk-gdb: properly launch activities for which name does not contain any dot.
- ndk-gdb: add --delay=<timeout> option to specify a delay in seconds
between activity launch and gdbserver attach. This is needed because certain
activities can take a long time to properly launch. The default delay is
also increased to 2 seconds (instead of 1).
- build/tools/build-gcc.sh: copy the sysroot to the build directory. This
avoids the generated toolchain binaries from hard-coding host build paths.
- Platform files are now under $NDK/platforms instead of $NDK/build/platforms
- Toolchain files are now under $NDK/toolchains instead of
$NDK/build/toolchains and $NDK/build/prebuilt.
- Release and debug objects are stored under two different directories now
(i.e. obj/local/<abi>/objs and obj/local/<abi>/objs-debug). This
prevents rebuilding *everything* when you switch between these two modes,
which can be a real time-saver for complex projects.
- Fixed a bug that duplicated the LOCAL_LDFLAGS in the final link command
when LOCAL_ALLOW_UNDEFINED_SYMBOLS was not set to 'true'
This release fixes a few bugs in r4 scripts. There are no new features.
OTHER FIXES & CHANGES:
- build/tools/rebuild-all-prebuilt.sh: mktemp expects 'XXXXXX' instead of 'XXX'.
Fix the script (and others in the same directory) to do that properly.
- ndk-gdb: check the target device's API level, and dump an error message if
it is not at least 8 (Android 2.2 a.k.a. Froyo). Fix script to properly
remove control characters like '\r' from adb shell's output. Also fix
script to work properly with OS X's BSD awk.
- ndk-build: Make AndroidManifest.xml optional. Now the build scripts will try
to look for jni/Android.mk if no manifest is found. If you don't use this,
you can also define NDK_PROJECT_PATH to point to your tree.
Also, on Windows, check that a Cygwin-compatible make executable is being
used, and dump a readable help message to solve the issue if this is not
- Place generated binaries under $PROJECT_PATH/obj/ instead of
$PROJECT_PATH/bin/ndk/. The 'bin' directory is sometimes cleaned
by the JDT, resulting in the inability to properly load symbol versions
of the shared libraries when running ndk-gdb.
- Warn when sources with unsupported extensions are used in LOCAL_SRC_FILES.
Previous behaviour was to silently ignore them.
- Set the optimization mode to 'debug' automatically if the manifest sets
android:debuggable to 'true'. You can override this by using
'APP_OPTIM := release' in your Application.mk, or by adding '-O2' to
Note that even in release mode, the NDK build scripts will produce
binaries with symbols under obj/local/<abi>/ that will be used for
debugging with gdb. However, the debugger will have a harder time to
print proper local variable values that have been optimized out or
even set breakpoints properly.
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- The <fenv.h> header was not placed in the correct location and could not
be found by normal builds.
- On Windows, Cygwin 1.7 or higher is now required. The NDK will not
work properly with Cygwin 1.5 which is now officially obsolete
- Simplified build system: You no longer need to run build/host-setup.sh
or modify anything under $NDK_ROOT/apps/. Instead, just invoke the
new 'ndk-build' script from your application's project directory, or
one of its sub-directories.
See docs/OVERVIEW.html and docs/NDK-BUILD.html for more details.
NOTE: For compatibility purpose, you can still define projects
through $NDK_ROOT/apps/<name> though.
However, not that sample applications have moved from
'apps/<name>/project' to 'samples/<name>' and now must
be built with 'ndk-build'. The source code of pre-existing
samples didn't change though.
- Easy native debugging support when running debuggable applications
on Android 2.2 or higher, through the new 'ndk-gdb' helper script.
See docs/NDK-GDB.html for details.
- Support for hardware FPU. This is through the new 'armeabi-v7a' ABI
corresponding to ARMv7-a class devices.
Note that by default, the NDK will still generate machine code for the old
'armeabi' ABI (ARMv5TE based) which is supported by all official Android
system images to date.
You will need to define APP_ABI in your Application.mk file to change this.
More details about ABIs is now available in docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.html
- A small static library named 'cpufeatures' is provided with source code
and can be used at runtime to determine the CPU features supported by the
target device. It should run on all Android platforms, starting from 1.5.
For more information, see docs/CPU-FEATURES.html
- Support for the optional ARM Advanced SIMD (a.k.a. NEON) instruction set
extension through the use the LOCAL_ARM_NEON variable in Android.mk, or
the '.neon' suffix when listing source files.
Neon is an *optional* instruction set extension, and not all Android ARMv7
devices will support it. You will need to use the 'cpufeatures' library to
determine if such code can be used at runtime, and provide alternate code
paths if this is not the case. This is similar to MMX/SSE/3DNow on x86
For more information, see docs/CPU-ARM-NEON.html
- Added a new sample (hello-neon) to demonstrate usage of 'cpufeatures'
and NEON intrinsics and build support.
- Added <android/bitmap.h>, a new stable API available from android-8
(a.k.a. Android 2.2) to reliably access the pixel buffer of an
android.graphics.Bitmap object from native code. See docs/STABLE-API.html
and the new sample program under 'samples/bitmap-plasma' for details
and usage example.
- Support the NX (No Execute) security feature, where special sections
are added to the generated shared libraries to instruct the kernel
that code shall not be executed from the heap and stack by default.
See docs/ANDROID-MK.html to see how to disable this, plus reference
links for more information.
OTHER FIXES AND CHANGES:
- support the .s extension for raw assembly sources (.S is already supported
but the input files are parsed by the C-preprocessor before being sent to
- build/host-setup.sh has been removed. There is no need for a 'setup' step
when using the NDK for the first time. All host-specific autodetection and
basic tool sanity checking have been moved to the build scripts themselves.
- APP_MODULES in Application.mk is now optional. If not defined, the NDK
will simply build _all_ the modules that are declared from your Android.mk.
You can still use APP_MODULES to restrict the set of modules you want to
build. Note that the NDK now computes the transitive dependencies of these
modules for you now. See docs/APPLICATION-MK.html for details.
- docs/STABLE-APIS.html: Add missing section for Dynamic Linker Library
(libdl.so). It is actually supported by all API levels.
- build/tools/download-toolchain-sources.sh: Use 'master' branch by default
instead of the 'eclair' one.
- build-toolchain.sh: Allow ad-hoc patching of toolchain sources when rebuilding
them. This is primarily to ease development. All you need to do is put a patch
under build/tools/toolchain-patches/<foo>/<name>.patch, and it will be applied
with 'patch -p1' into the <foo> directory of the unpacked toolchain sources
before the configure step.
- docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.html: Mention the experimental 'x86' ABI.
- build/core/mkdeps.sh: Removed obsolete script.
- the NDK build script now only parses the Application.mk and Android.mk of
the applications listed by APP. The error messages when APP is empty or
malformed have also been improved.
- removed the annoying 'the mangling of 'va_list' has changed in GCC 4.4'
warning when building with GCC 4.4.0 for ARM.
- C Library header fixes:
For all platforms:
- <arpa/inet.h>: no longer includes <netinet/in6.h>.
- <ctype.h>: better inlining with -ansi option.
- <mntent.h>: add missing include for <stdio.h>.
- <netinet/in.h>: include <netinet/in6.h> and define in6addr_any +
- <netinet/in6.h>: add IPV6_JOIN_GROUP, IPV6_LEAVE_GROUP,
- <sys/epoll.h>: add missing C++ inclusion guards.
- <sys/resource.h>: add missing rlim_t declaration.
- <sys/system_properties.h>: add missing C++ inclusion guards.
- <time64.h>: add missing C++ inclusion guards.
- <netdb.h>: move h_errno declaration inside C++ inclusion guards.
- C Library changes:
For android-8 (a.k.a. Android 2.2):
- <dlfcn.h>: add DL_info and dladdr().
- <err.h>: add err(), warn() and other variants.
- <regex.h>, <fts.h>, <sys/queue.h>: added
- <pthread.h>: add pthread_condattr_t
- <sched.h>: added proper clone() declaration (and implementation).
- <signal.h>: added killpg().
- <stdio.h>: add fdprintf() and vfdprintf().
- <stdlib.h>: fix ptsname_r() signature in declaration. previous
implementation was broken anyway.
- <unistd.h>: add getusershell(), setusershell(), endusershell(),
ttyname(), ttyname_r(), TEMP_FAILURE_RETRY. Fix usleep() signature
(now returns int).
- <wchar.h>: add fake mbstowcs() and wcstombs().
More details available under docs/system/libc/CHANGES.html
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fix build/host-setup.sh to execute as a Bourne shell script (again)
- Make target shared libraries portable to systems that don't use the exact
same toolchain. This is needed due to differences in libgcc.a implementations
between gcc 4.2.1 and 4.4.0. This change ensures that generated machine
code doesn't depend on helper functions provided by the Android platform
- GCC 4.4.0 is now used by default by the NDK. It generates better code than
GCC 4.2.1, which was used in previous releases. However, the compiler's C++
frontend is also a lot more pedantic regarding certain template constructs
and will even refuse to build some of them.
For this reason, the NDK also comes with GCC 4.2.1 prebuilt binaries, and
you can force its usage by defining NDK_TOOLCHAIN in your environment to
the value 'arm-eabi-4.2.1'. For example:
Note that only the 'armeabi' ABI is supported by the 4.2.1 toolchain. We
recommend switching to 4.2.1 *only* if you encounter compilation problems
The 4.2.1 prebuilt binaries will probably be removed from a future release
of the Android NDK, we thus *strongly* invite you to fix your code if such
- Support for OpenGL ES 2.0. This is through the new 'android-5' platform to
reflect Android 2.0 (previously the Eclair branch). This is merely a copy
of android-4 that also includes headers and libraries for OpenGL ES 2.0.
See the sample named "hello-gl2" for a *very* basic demonstration. Note that
OpenGL ES 2.0 is currently *not* available from Java, and must be used
through native code exclusively.
IMPORTANT: OpenGL ES 2.0 is not supported in the Android emulator at this
time. Running/testing any native code that depends on it thus
requires a real device.
- The NDK build script will now remove installed binaries from the application
project's path before starting the build. This ensures that:
- if the build fails for some reason, a stale/obsolete file is not left in
your application project tree by mistake.
- if you change the target ABI, a stale/obsolete file is not left into the
folder corresponding to the old ABI.
- Updated the STABLE-APIS.html document to clarify the OpenGL ES 1.0/1.1/2.0
issues regarding specific devices (i.e. 1.0 supported everywhere, 1.1 and
2.0 on specific devices only, need for <uses-feature> tag in manifest).
OTHER FIXES AND CHANGES:
- Actually use the awk version detected by host-setup.sh during the build.
- Only allow undefined symbols when LOCAL_ALLOW_UNDEFINED_SYMBOLS is set
to 'true', just like the documentation says it works. Also fix a typo
in CLEAR_VARS that prevented this variable from being cleared properly.
- Simplified build/tools/make-release.sh, the --prebuilt-dir option is
gone, and --help will dump a clearer description of expected options
and input files.
- Added --prebuilt-ndk=FILE option to build/tools/make-release.sh script to
package a new experimental NDK package archive from the current source tree
plus the toolchain binaries of an existing NDK release package. E.g.:
will generate a new NDK package in /tmp/ndk-release that contains the most
up-to-date build scripts, plus the toolchain binaries from 1.6_r1 (which
are not in the git repository).
Also added the --no-git option to collect all sources from the current
NDK root directory, instead of the list given by 'git ls-files'. This can
be useful if you don't want to checkout the whole 'platform/development'
project from repo and still work on the NDK.
This change is to help people easily package experimental NDK releases to
test and distribute fixes and improvements.
- Remove bash-isms from build/tools/build-toolchain.sh. Now it's possible to
build it with the 'dash' shell on Debian-based systems (tested on Ubuntu 8.04)
- Remove bash-ism from build/tools/build-ndk-sysroot.sh
- Refresh C library headers for all platforms:
- make <endian.h> simply include <sys/endian.h>
- make <stdint.h> properly declare 64-bit integer types with a C99 compiler
- add missing <sys/types.h> to <strings.h>
- add GLibc-compatible macro aliases (st_atimensec, st_mtimensec and
st_ctimensec) to <stat.h>
- add missing declaration for tzset() in <time.h>
- Added build/tools/download-toolchain-sources.sh, a script that allows you
to download the toolchain sources from the official open-source repository
at android.git.kernel.org and nicely package them into a tarball that can
later be used by build/tools/build-toolchain.sh to rebuild the prebuilt
binaries for your system.
- Updated build/tools/build-toolchain.sh to support the tarballs generated
by download-toolchain-sources.sh with the --package=<file> option. This
also builds both gcc 4.2.1 and 4.4.0, adding support for armeabi-v7a to
IMPORTANT BUG FIXES:
- Fix build/host-setup.sh to:
* execute as a Bourne shell script
* remove unused host gcc dependency
* improve Windows host auto-detection
* add GNU Make version check
* add Nawk/Gawk check
* ensure that the script is run from $NDKROOT as build/host-setup.sh
* add --help, --verbose, --no-awk-check and --no-make-check options
- Properly add sysroot library search path at build time. This makes a line
in Android.mk like:
LOCAL_LDLIBS := -lz
Actually work correctly, instead of having the linker complaining that it
could not find the corresponding libz.so library. Also clear LOCAL_LDLIBS
in $(CLEAR_VARS) script.
- The 'sources' directory is gone. The NDK build system now looks for
$(APP_PROJECT_PATH)/jni/Android.mk by default. You can override this with
the new APP_BUILD_SCRIPT variable in Application.mk
For example, the 'hello-jni' sample uses the following files:
The 'apps/<name>' directory is still needed in this release though.
- Change LOCAL_CFLAGS / LOCAL_CPPFLAGS to work as in the full Android build
system. This means that:
- LOCAL_CFLAGS is now used for *both* C and C++ sources (was only for C)
- LOCAL_CPPFLAGS is now used for C++ sources only (was for both C and C++)
- LOCAL_CXXFLAGS is used like LOCAL_CPPFLAGS but is considered obsolete.
(will disappear in next release)
Also fixed APP_CPPFLAGS / APP_CFLAGS / APP_CXXFLAGS correspondingly.
- Rename build/platforms/android-1.5 to build/platforms/android-3 to match
the Android API level instead of the marketing speak.
Also add a new build/platforms/android-4, and make the build system select
which platform to use based on the content of the project file named
- Add OpenGL ES 1.x headers and libraries to the android-4 stable APIs.
(NOTE: they are *not* available for android-3)
Also provide a small port of the "San Angeles Observation" demo to show
how to make a simple Android application that uses them.
OTHER FIXES AND CHANGES
- Ensure that the __ANDROID__ macro is always defined when building code
with the NDK. Normally, the macro must be defined by the toolchain
automatically to indicate that you're targeting the Android runtime.
This works for the new arm-linux-androideabi toolchain, but there is
a bug in the way we built the arm-eabi one, so add the flag manually
through the NDK build script for it.
Note that the ANDROID macro, is now deprecated. While it is still defined
by the NDK, you should modify your code to test against __ANDROID__ instead!
- Generate thumb binaries by default.
- Add support for LOCAL_ARM_MODE in Android.mk.
- Add support for the '.arm' suffix in source file names to force the
compilation of a single source in ARM (32-bit) mode.
- Generate proper unoptimized versions of binaries when APP_OPTIM := debug
- Add support for LOCAL_C_INCLUDES in Android.mk
- Fix compilation of assembler files (e.g. foo.S)